is a turnover that originates from Italy. It is made of ingredients similar to pizza folded over and shaped like a crescent.
The typical calzone is stuffed with tomato and mozzarella, and may include other ingredients usually associated with pizza toppings.
The rolled pizza dough is folded in two over the stuffing and the edge is braided, prior to frying.
A CUDDIRUNI [Sicilian]
Cuddiruni is a rectangular focaccia stuffed with fried onions, tomatoes, sliced boiled potatoes, anchovies, herbs and cheese.
The “cuddiruni in bianco”, a “white” version is made using cauliflower instead of tomato. Each family makes variations sometime adding meat, fish or vegetables.
A SCACCIATA [Sicilian]
One haute cuisine version is a provolone cheese-filled pastry in a bread dough pie crust. The simpler peasant version is much more like a calzone and is a pizza dough crust folded over and filled with either spinach, broccoli, potatoes and onions, possibly sausage, and a small amount of tomato sauce draped over the crust.
or knysh is an Eastern European, and Yiddish snack food made popular in America by Jewish immigrants, eaten widely by Jewish and non-Jewish peoples alike,
A knish consists of a filling covered with dough that is either baked, grilled, or deep fried.
In the most traditional versions, the filling is made entirely of mashed potato, ground meat, sauerkraut, onions, kasha (buckwheat groats) or cheese. Other varieties of fillings feature sweet potatoes, black beans, fruit, broccoli, tofu or spinach.
sometimes known in (West) Cornish dialect as tiddy oggy, and sometimes as pastie in the United States, is a filled pastry case, associated with Cornwall and Devon, in the south west of England, UK. It is made by placing the uncooked filling on a flat pastry circle, and folding it to wrap the filling, crimping the edge to form a seal. The result is a raised semicircular package. The traditional Cornish pasty, which has Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) status in Europe, is filled with beef, sliced or diced potato, swede (also known as a yellow turnip) and onion, seasoned with salt and pepper, and is baked. Today, the pasty is the food most associated with Cornwall and accounts for 6% of the Cornish food economy. Pasties with many different fillings are made; some shops specialise in selling all sorts of pasties.
By law, only Cornish pasties prepared in Cornwall can be called a "Cornish Pasty".
A bridie or Forfar bridie is a Scottish type of meat pastry, originally made in the town of Forfar, Scotland.
A bridie is a savoury pie similar to a pasty, but the pastry is not as hard and no potato is used, making it much lighter in texture. The filling is made of minced steak, butter, and beef suet seasoned with salt and pepper, and sometimes with an addition of minced onions. The filling is placed on rolled-out pastry dough which is then folded into a semi-circular or triangular shape and the edges crimped before it is baked in the oven.
Bakers in Forfar traditionally use shortcrust pastry, but flaky pastry is more commonly used in the rest of Scotland.
A Forfar Bridie is a horseshoe-shaped meat product. It has a shortcrust cover and the filling consists of beef, onions and seasoning. The Famous Forfar Bridie originated in the early part of the 19th century.
In some establishments the contents of the bridie can be indicated by the number of holes in the top, one hole signifying that no onions are in the ingredients, and two holes indicating onions have been used.
A JAMAICAN PATTY
is a pastry that contains various fillings and spices baked inside a flaky shell, often tinted golden yellow with an egg yolk mixture or turmeric. It is made like a turnover but is more savory. As its name suggests, it is commonly found in Jamaica, and is also eaten in other areas of the Caribbean, such as Costa Rica's Caribbean coast. In Haiti, the pastry is thick and crispy, making it essentially a turnover. It is traditionally filled with seasoned ground beef, but fillings can include chicken, vegetables, shrimp, lobster, fish, soy, ackee, mixed vegetables or cheese. In Jamaica, the patty is often eaten as a full meal, especially when paired with coco bread. It can also be made as bite-sized portions called cocktail patties.
Among the Jamaican diaspora in the UK, the pastry is more like that of a suet crust, and often made with the fat from Curry Goat which provides the yellow color.
The dish was carried to Latin America and the Philippines by Spanish colonists, and to Indonesia by the Portuguese, where they remain very popular to this day. Empanadas in Latin America, the Philippines and Indonesia have various fillings, detailed below.
A PASTEL [Brazillian]
The pastel is classified in Brazilian cuisine as a salgado (salty snack). Pastel is traditionally sold on the streets or in fast food shops known as "pastelarias". The pastel is usually eaten accompanied by cold sugarcane juice. It is popularly said to have originated when Japanese immigrants adapted Chinese fried wontons to sell as snacks at weekly street markets.
is a small croquette, enclosed in pastry or rolled in breadcrumbs, usually baked or deep fried. It is filled with sweet or savory ingredients, most often minced meat or fish, and is served as an entrée, main course, dessert or side dish.
Fried rissoles are common in Republic of Ireland, especially in the county of Wexford, where potato is boiled, mashed, mixed with herbs and spices, battered or breadcrumbed, and served with chips (French-fries), and/or chicken or battered sausages.
While samosas are traditionally fried, many Westerners prefer to bake them, as this is more convenient and healthier. Variations using phyllo or flour tortillas are sometimes used.
A PIROZHKI [Russian]
is a generic word for individual-sized baked or fried buns stuffed with a variety of fillings.
A CURRY PUFF
Curry puffs are commonly seen in Singapore's Pasar Malams and other stalls in shopping centres. Additionally, the epok-epok is a popular variation in some of Singapore's hawker centres, usually amongst Malay stalls. Alternatively, the more common type of curry puff has a thick or flaky English-style crust, with a mixture of Chinese and Indian styles in the filling.
Other puff snacks modelled on the curry puff concept have also been introduced. For example, A1 Curry Puff also sells puffs with yam, durian, corn, red bean, nata de coco, grass jelly, bird's nest and even custard fillings.
Besides the more "exotic" fillings mentioned, there are also more conventional flavours which are quite popular with the locals. These puffs are readily available in Singapore, which include sardine, black-pepper chicken and tuna fillings.